Breccia is a clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of large (over two millimeter diameter) angular fragments. The spaces between the large fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a mineral cement which binds the rock together.

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Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks  " Made up of Sediments"

Sedimentary Rocks are formed in following steps.

  1. Weathering/Erosion
  2. Transportation.
  3. Deposition
  4. Lithification
  5. Cementation
There are three basic types of sedimentary rocks: 

1) clastic sedimentary rocks such as breccia, conglomerate, sandstone and shale, that are formed from mechanical weathering debris.

 2) chemical sedimentary rocks such as rock salt and some limestones, that form when dissolved materials precipitate from solution. 

3) organic sedimentary rocks such as coal and some limestones which form from the accumulation of plant or animal debris.



Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2.
There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Especially in Europe and the Middle East, varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings.

Where is Quartz Found?

Quartz is the most abundant and widely distributed mineral found at Earth's surface. It is present and plentiful in all parts of the world. It forms at all temperatures. It is abundant in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. It is highly resistant to both mechanical and chemical weathering. This durability makes it the dominant mineral of mountaintops and the primary constituent of beach, river and desert sand. Quartz is ubiquitous, plentiful and durable. Minable deposits are found throughout the world.

Physical Properties Of Quartz

Physical properties of quartz

Most Common Mineral

Q) What is the most common mineral in the crust and surface of earth?

Answer:- Depending upon how you look at it there are two possible minerals.

1. Quartz is the most common mineral on the surface of earth.

2. Feldspar is the most common mineral in the crust of earth. Feldspar is commonly considered  as a group of minerals, which includes Potassium - Feldspar and plagioclase.